Thyroid, Breast, Endocrine & Cancer Surgeon
Obstetrician, Gynecologist & Laparoscopic Surgeon
Thyroid nodules are very common. Fortunately, most of them are benign. The biggest challenge in the evaluation of thyroid nodules is avoiding overtreatment, i.e. knowing when a patient can safely avoid surgery.
At Thyroid clinic we diagnose and treat thyroid disorder like
⇒ Hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) including Grave's disease
⇒ Hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid) including Hashimoto's thyroiditis
⇒ Goiter (enlarged thyroid)
⇒ Thyroid nodules
⇒ Thyroid cancers
⇒ Thyroid and pregnancy
Dr Manish Kaushal does all type of surgical procedures for thyroid and parathyroid gland disorder including
⇒ Completion throidectomy
⇒ Radical Thyroidectomy
Hyperthyroidism is due to increased levels of circulating thyroid hormones. The most common cause of hyperthyroidism is Grave's disease, which is an autoimmune disease where the immune system of the body will produce antibodies that will bind to the thyroid cells and stimulate them to make more thyroid hormones. Patients with Grave's disease usually have a goiter (enlarged thyroid gland) in addition to the other symptoms of hyperthyroidism. In some cases, patients with Grave's disease will have Grave's eye disease, which can present as an inflammation of the eyes or, in severe cases bulging of the eyes. Another cause of hyperthyroidism with goiter is overactive nodular goiter (toxic nodular goiter) which does not have an autoimmune cause. High levels of thyroid hormones will speed up every function in the body. The person with hyperthyroidism will be nervous, irritable, and shaky; there can be racing heart, excessive sweating, heat intolerance, frequent bowel movements, thinning of the hair, weight loss and irregular periods. When there is thyroiditis (inflammation of the thyroid), one can see pain in the neck area, the jaw or the ear together with fever in addition to the symptoms of hyperthyroidism. When hyperthyroidism is suspected, the doctor will measure the blood level of TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone). In this case, the TSH will be low and the doctor will confirm the disorder by measuring blood levels of the thyroid hormones.
To diagnose the cause of the hyperthyroidism, the doctor might need to order a thyroid scan to distinguish between the different causes in order to prescribe the most appropriate thyroid treatments.
Three kinds of treatments are available to help patients with hyperthyroidism and these treatments can be used in combination sometimes: Antithyroid medications (PTU) which can slow the thyroid; radioactive iodine treatments which kill the thyroid cells; and surgical removal of the thyroid gland. The doctor might use a medication called beta-blocker (atenolol, propranolol) which can help with the shakiness and the racing heart). Some cases of Grave's disease can go into remission without the proper thyroid treatments. If radioactive iodine or surgery are used, the person will most likely end up having hypothyroidism and require lifelong thyroid treatments with hormone pills.
Hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid)
Hypothyroidism is due to inability of the thyroid gland to produce enough thyroid hormones. Unlike with Grave's disease, the thyroid cells in hypothyroidism face autoimmune destruction, which means that the body directs its immune response against these thyroid cells and destroys them; Hashimoto's disease is another name for this thyroid-cell-destroying process. Other causes of thyroid failure are surgical removal of all or part of the thyroid or its destruction by radiation. Less common causes of thyroid failure are treatments with certain medications or viral infection of the thyroid gland. Lack of iodine in some parts of the world can lead to hypothyroidism. Too much iodine in a susceptible gland can also lead to hypothyroidism.
Symptoms of hypothyroidism include: slowing of the body functions, slower thinking, depression, coldness, constipation, muscle weakness, abnormal periods and slowing of the metabolism leading to moderate weight gain. Some patients will have a goiter (big thyroid gland). It can also cause high cholesterol which in turn can increase the risk of coronary heart disease. A significant proportion of hypothyroid individuals do not have symptoms and this is where screening with a blood test is important. The first thing that the doctor will measure is the blood level of TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone), which will be high in this situation